Dampak Positif Pariwisata Terhadap Kebudayaan

I INTRODUCTION
Tourism is one of the construction sector which is currently being promoted by the government. This is because tourism has a very important role in the development of Indonesia, especially as foreign exchange earners in the country next to oil and gas sector.
The purpose of tourism development in Indonesia seen clearly in the Instruction of the President of the Republic of Indonesia No. 9 Year 1969, especially Chapter II, Article 3, which mentions "The efforts of tourism development in Indonesia is a developing" tourism industry "and is part of the development and construction efforts and kesejahtraan society and the State "(Yoeti, 1996: 151).

Based on the Presidential Instruction, said that the purpose of tourism development in Indonesia are:
(1) Increasing foreign exchange earnings and revenues in particular the state and society in general, and the expansion of employment opportunities, and encourage the activities of supporting industries and industries other side.

(2) Introducing and harness the natural beauty and culture of Indonesia.

(3) Increasing the brotherhood / national and international friendship.

In the above goal, it was clear that the tourism industry developed in Indonesia in order to bring in and increase the foreign exchange (state revenue). In other words, all efforts related to tourism is a commercial enterprise with the main purpose of bringing foreign exchange.
In addition, tourism development also aims to introduce and make use of natural beauty and culture of Indonesia. This means, the development of tourism in Indonesia from potential telepas not owned by Indonesia to support the tourism. Cultural diversity of Indonesia has a very interesting. Cultural diversity is backed by the religious, unique customs, and arts of every tribe in Indonesia. In addition, the beautiful landscape will provide a separate appeal for tourists both natural mountain (rural), Under Water, and the beach.

Indonesian culture to be enjoyed as an attraction for tourists require a means of expressing. This means, for others to understand the culture of Indonesia is needed an instrument capable of expressing it describes the culture as a whole. Tools cultural expression that no other language, which in this case is the Indonesian language.
Culture in the broadest sense as a result of initiative and creative human work will certainly continue to evolve with the development of human civilization and the times. Therefore, the rapid growth of tourism in Indonesia also have implications for the development of Indonesian culture, including the development of Indonesian language as a means of expressing the Indonesian culture.

Based on the above description, in this paper will study the relationship between tourism, culture, and language as well as the problem. To complement these pembahasnnya used Bali as an example the case.

II TOURISM, CULTURE AND LANGUAGE
Before discussing the main issues set forth in the introduction above, the first will be presented some concepts associated with the above title that aims to to provide a description of the variables above the title, so in the end in mind the relationship between one variable and other variables. With demikiann will be found a comprehensive answer to address the above problems.

2.1 Tourism
Limitation of tourism can be reviewed from various perspectives. Therefore, restrictions on tourism, there is no uniformity depending on the point of view. One is that dikemukan by E. Guyer Freuler in Yoeti (1996: 115), which states:
Tourism in the modern sense is a phenomenon of today is based on the need for health and weather changes, assessment of conscious and nurture (love) to the beauty of nature and in particular due to the increasing association of nations and classes of human society as a result of commercial development , industry, trade and perfection than transport equipment.

Another notion of tourism is:
Tourism is a journey undertaken for the diselnggarakan temporarily from one place to another, in order not to try (business) or to make a living in the place visited, but simply to enjoy the journey to pertamasyaan and recreation or to meet diverse desire.
(Yoeti, 1996: 118)

Based on the above understanding, we can say that tourism is an activity that made the trip from one place to another for a while with the recreational purposes rather than to make a living. Thus, the main purpose of the trip is related to pertamasyaan. In addition, the notion was also known that people who travel will require a variety of goods and services since they went from point of origin to their destination and return to their places of origin.
The emergence of products and services due to recreational activities undertaken by tourists are far from where she lived. In this case they need transportation services, accommodation, catering, entertainment, and other services. Thus, the product is the overall tourism industry services received by tourists, began to abandon her home (home visitors) to the destination (tourist destination) and return to their home areas.

Tourism industry is said to be, because in it there are various activities that can produce goods and services. However, the meaning of the industry here is not as understanding of the industry in general that is the plant or machinery large and small filled with smoke. Tourism industry is not as understanding of the industry in general, so-called industrial tourism industry without smoke.
Above description in line with the concept of the tourism industry put forward by Yoeti (1996: 153) which states: "The tourism industry is a collection of the kinds of companies that together produce goods and services (goods and services) needed tourists in particular and the traveler in general, during the perjalannnya ".

Another notion that is consistent with the above description of the tourism industry is presented by Damardjati cited by Sihite (2000:54). According to him, "the tourism industry is a summary of various kinds which together produce produk-produk/jasa-jasa/layanan-layanan or services, which will either directly or indirectly will be needed by the tourists during the journey".
Based on some of the above definition, it can be said that pariwista industry is a collection of various companies which jointly produce goods or services needed by tourists and traveler during his journey.

2.2 Culture
Culture is the whole communication system that binds and allows operation of a set of people called the public. Thus culture can be defined as a "system of rules of communication and interaction that allows a society occurs, preserved, and preserved". Culture that gives meaning to all business and human movements. (Nababan, 1984: 49)
Based on the above definition, clearly shows that between humans and culture are inseparable. Similarly, between the Indonesian and Indonesian culture. This is because human beings live alongside Indonesia in a unit area of ethnic communities, also live in a unity of the Republic of Indonesia. In this regard, they hold one culture, according to the conception of insight archipelago, Indonesia is the national culture (Geriya, 1996: 71).

Furthermore formally Indonesia normative cultural system and set the whole human Indonesian society. There are two functions of cultural systems that Indonesia is very important, namely: the giver's identity and as a communication that unites and integrates the Indonesian community that is diverse.

Culture can also be interpreted as "the activities and the creation of the mind (reason) people like: faith, art, etc." For example, Chinese Culture, Culture of Indonesia, and Javanese culture. (Poerwadarminta, 1983: 157). Based on this understanding, we can say that only humans have culture. This is due to living things is people who have sense and reason to generate culture.

In addition to the above two terms, the notion of culture can also be viewed from the corner of Sciences Anthropology. In this regard, culture (the culture) is defined as "the entirety of the conduct and results of regular human behavior by the administration that must be acquired behaviors by learning and all are arranged in life". (Koentjaraninggrat Ed., 1985: 77).

Culture in this case is understood as a learned behavior and conducted by a group of people, cultures obtained from others by learning from the community. Culture also includes everything that is the result of creativity, initiative, and the work of humans in an effort to improve the standard of living and adapt to their environment. As a system, the culture needs to be seen from the embodiment of human life associated with the ideas, behaviors, and material that are influenced by various aspects.

Based on the notions above can be concluded is meant by culture is a result of creative initiative, and the work of humans in an effort to improve the standard of living and adapt to their environment. These limits are more emphasized on the fact that humans are capable of producing culture, because humans are living beings who have mind and reason.

2.3 Language
Language as one element of culture has a very important role in human life. Language allows a person communicating with others in meeting their needs. Thus, it can be said is the main function of language as a tool komuniasi. This does not mean that the language has only one function. Another function is as a tool to express self-expression, a tool to make integration and social adaptation, as well as a tool to hold social control. (Keraf, 1980: 3)

Based on these functions, also mentioned that "Language is a means of communication between members of the public symbol of the sound produced by means of said human" (Keraf, 1980: 1). Similar opinion was also expressed by Sitindoan (1984: 17) states "Language is a symbol of the sound produced by means of said human, and the system has means that are arbitrary; used by men in her life as a means of communication between each other to form, express , and communicate thoughts and feelings. Cultural social nature ".

Based on the notions described above, it is clear that the language was intended in this paper is a communication tool produced by the tool man has said symbol, system, meaning, and social are arbitrary and culturally. Every language has a symbol. With the symbol will facilitate communication, although not directly dealing with the object. This is because each symbol already contains a concept or understanding. In order for the meaning of the symbols are understood, every language user must understand and follow the system language is used. Language system contains rules or rules that must be obeyed by the user's language. If not obeyed, the delivery information may be chaotic or communication can not happen.

Languages are arbitrary means no direct relationship between the symbol with the symbolized. Pelambangan emergence of an object is based on the convention. However, even so to be able to understand a language must be studied and used as a communication tool.

From the above description can be said is the Indonesian language is the language here used as a communication tool by residents of the Republic of Indonesia, as the national language as well as an official language. As the national language Indonesian point is recognized and used officially by the Indonesian people in administration, education, political, and cultural fields in a broad sense; as an official language of Indonesian means used by the nation of Indonesia as the official communication tool in a situation that is authorized: in formal meeting, for the purposes of state administration, education and teaching, and the development of science, technology, and culture. (Sitindoan, 1984: 19)

III RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PROBLEM AND TOURISM, CULTURE, AND LANGUAGE

The development of tourism in Indonesia will have implications for the development of Indonesian national culture that is supported by local cultures. This phenomenon will also affect the development of Indonesian language is part of the national culture as well as Indonesia and also as a means pengungkapnya.

3.1 Tourism and Cultural Relations
Tourism is a phenomenon consisting of various aspects, such as: economic, technological, political, religious, cultural, ecological, and defense and security. Developing tourism through openness and cross-cultural communication, through tourism is also growing more and more widespread communication between other components in the framework of relationships that are mutually influencing (Geriya, 1996:38)

Culture as one aspect of tourism can be used as a potential in the tourism development. This is because, in the development of tourism in a country or a region is related to the potential possessed by a region or a country. Indonesia, for example, by capitalize national cultural wealth backed by the uniqueness of local cultures can use culture as a tourist attraction.

Development of tourism, which is based on further culture termed cultural tourism. In other words, cultural tourism is a type of tourism that is developed based on culture (Geriya, 1996: 45). Culture is meant here is Indonesian culture that is built from the various local cultures in Indonesia. This means that, every step is done in an effort to develop tourism in Indonesia has always been based on national culture of Indonesia. All aspects related to tourism, such as: promotion, attraction, management, food, souvenirs, it should always utilize the potential of national culture of Indonesia. Thus the future of Indonesian tourism has its own characteristics which can be distinguished from other countries for tourism, which is based on the potential of others.

The discussion above shows how closely the relationship between tourism and the national culture of Indonesia. Indonesian tourism is developed based on the potential of existing national culture and national culture will be developed along with the development of tourism. In addition, the development of sustainable tourism with the concept of cultural tourism will be able to strengthen the national culture of Indonesia.

3.2 Culture and Language
Culture and language have a very close relationship. Culture and language in this case is limited to the national culture of Indonesia and the Indonesian language. The relationship between the two is not only limited to Indonesian is part of the national culture of Indonesia, but also be seen from the function of language as expression, conservationists, and heir to the Indonesian national culture.

Language as a communication system is part of the culture system. Languages involved in all aspects of culture, because human culture can not happen without the language. This language allows the formation of a culture. This is one of the relationship between culture and language.

Cultural relations and other languages is that language as a communication system, will have meaning only in a culture that became the container. This means that in order to understand a language, at least should be familiar with the culture. And vice versa, to understand the culture of a region or a country would be more perfect if it also understands the language.

The relationship between culture and language can also be seen on the other hand, the language is the key to a deeper understanding of a culture. Therefore, in studying a culture is also necessary to learn the language.

According to Nababan (1984: 52) there are two kinds of relationship between culture and language. Both relationships are (1) that the language is part of the culture and (2) that a person learns the culture through language. The first relationship is with the phylogenetic relationships, whereas the second relationship is with ontogenetik relationship. Both the relationship between language and culture can be described as follows.
Phylogenetic
(Systemic)
Ontogenetik
(Learning)

From the above description of language in general has a very close relationship with culture. This also occurs between Indonesian and national culture. That is, to determine the national culture can be learned from the Indonesian language as a vehicle pengungkapnya function. Learning and vice versa Indonesian indirectly also know Indonesian culture as a container.

3.3 Impact of Cultural Tourism
Tourism as a phenomenon consisting of various aspects of course will affect these aspects, including the culture is one aspect of tourism. Moreover, the development of tourism in Indonesia based on Indonesia's national culture, of tourism development will affect the national culture of Indonesia.

The impact of tourism on culture can not be separated from the patterns of interaction which tend to be dynamic and positive. Dynamics is developed, because culture is an important role for sustainable development of tourism and tourism on the other hand provide a role in revitalizing the culture. Positive feature of these dynamics are shown to improve the cultural patterns of tourism and tourism is also capable of advancing culture. (Geriya, 1996: 49).

Exposure on the development of tourism indicates can provide a positive impact on culture. Here the cultural acculturation will occur, because of the local community interaction with tourists. In addition, regional cultures that are part of the national culture of Indonesia will continue to grow. This is caused by the tourists (foreigners) who comes to see and know better the original culture. This of course also result in the excavation of cultural values indigenous to developed and preserved. Thus the traditional cultural patterns such as historic sites, monuments, art, and customs will remain preserved and sustainable (sustainable).

Positive impact on cultural tourism, as stated above in line with the thinking Sihite (2000: 76) mentions an outline of the positive impact of cultural tourism can be seen on the following things:

□ It is a stimulant in the maintenance business of cultural monuments that can be enjoyed by locals and tourists.

□ It is a boost in the effort to preserve and revive some traditional cultural patterns such as arts, crafts, dance, music, traditional ceremonies, and clothing.

□ Memberingan drive to improve the environment clean and attractive.

□ The occurrence of cultural exchange between tourists and local communities. For example, many tourists may be more familiar with cultural and other environmental and local residents also know other places of tourist story.

□ To encourage education in the field of tourism to generate human resources in the field of tourism that are reliable.

The development of tourism terkosentrasi very rapidly and can cause various effects. In general, the impact is a positive impact and negative effects. Positive impact of tourism development include: (1) expand employment; (2) increasing opportunities; (3) increase revenues, (4) the maintenance of local culture; (5) knows the local culture by the tourists. While the negative impacts of tourism will lead to; (1) the occurrence of additional pressure due to the population of newcomers from other regions; (2) the emergence of commercialization; (3) the development of consumptive lifestyle; (4) disruption of the environment; (5) the limited agricultural land ; (6) digestion culture; and (7) terdesaknya local community (Spillane, 1989:47).

Positive impact of cultural tourism activities of local communities, among others; the emergence of a culture of creativity and innovation, cultural acculturation, and cultural revitalization. While the negative effects are often worried the local community's culture, among others; the process of commodification, imitation, and profanisasi (Shaw and Williams, in Ardika 2003:25). Further explained that the impact of tourism on local culture as described above is caused by three things namely: (1) local communities to provide the artwork or high-quality crafts to buyers (tourists); (2) to maintain the image and identity local culture to the outside world; (3) people want to earn money due to the increased commercialization (Graburn Ardika 2000 in 2003).

Subhadra (2006) provides a clearer limits on the socio-cultural impacts of tourism. Positive socio-cultural impacts of tourism development can be seen from the preservation of cultures of local communities such as religious activities, customs, and traditions, and acceptance of tourist development and tourist arrival by locals. While the negative impact of socio-cultural development of tourism visits from the local community response to tourism such as the existence of disputes or conflicts of interest among the stakeholders, hatred and rejection of tourism development, and the emergence of social problems such as the practice of gambling, prostitution and sexual abuse (sexual abuse ).

Bali as one of the main tourist attraction in Indonesia is a barometer of national tourism development. Therefore, Bali an important role in the development of tourism in Indonesia.

As a major destination for tourists, of course Bali is inseparable from the impact of tourism development from all aspects of life including culture. Development of tourism in Bali, which is based on Balinese culture which is basically rooted in the Hindu religion, bringing the excitement of the excavation, maintenance, and development of cultural aspects, especially the arts, heritage monuments of history, and customs. Of course this dual effect of increasing local revenues from these activities as consumption for tourists and preserve the cultural aspects of itself. For example, performing a variety of art for tourists, a museum to store the objects as well as a historic tourist attraction, and various customs activities that are unique.

Adanya dampak positif pariwisata terhadap kebudayaan menunjukkan adanya keselarasan ungkapan yang mengatakan “Pariwisata untuk Kebudayaan”. Artinya, pengembangan pariwisata benar-benar memberikan dampak yang positif terhadap perkembangan kebudayaan dalam arti yang luas. Ini artinya, perkembangan pariwisata secara positif dapat memperkokoh kebudayaan Indonesia.
Di samping memberikan dampak yang positif, pengembangan pariwisata juga dapat menimbulkan masalah. Di samping pariwisata dapat mengembangkan dan melestarikan kebudayaan, sering juga terjadi sebaliknya yaitu tereksploitasinya kebudayaan secara berlebihan demi kepentingan pariwisata. Tentu hal ini akan berdampak negatif terhadap perkembangan kebudayaan. Ini sering terjadi akibat adanya komersialisasi kebudayaan dalam pariwisata. Artinya, memfungsikan pola-pola kebudayaan seperti kesenian, tempat-tempat sejarah, adat istiadat, dan monumen-monumen di luar fungsi utamanya demi kepentingan pariwisata. Inilah suatu masalah yang dihadapi sekaligus tantangan dalam pengembangan pariwisata budaya. Hal ini juga dialami oleh Bali sebagai daerah tujuan wisata di Indonesia.

Perkembangan pariwisata memang dapat menumbuhkembangkan aspek-aspek kebudayaan seperti kesenian dan adat istiadat di Bali. Akan tetapi, di balik itu ternyata juga muncul permasalahan akibat terlalu tereksploitasinya aspek-aspek tadi. Misalnya, munculnya berbagai kesenian yang awalnya hanya dipentaskan untuk kepentingan upacara agama, kemudian dipertunjukkan untuk kepentingan wisatawan. Demikian juga dijadikannya tempat suci sebagai objek wisata. Ini merupakan fakta terjadinya komersialisasi budaya dalam pariwisata, karena berubahnya atau bertambahnya fungsi di samping fungsi utamanya.

Di samping terjadinya komersialisasi, tampaknya yang perlu juga menjadi pemikiran kita bersama, yaitu pola pembinaan kebudayaan dalam arti luas sebagai pendukung kepariwisataan. Sudah menjadi kenyataan devisa yang dihasilkan dari pengembangan pariwisata, digunakan oleh negara untuk melaksanakan pembangunan di segala bidang. Devisa itu dibagi-bagi ke semua aspek pembangunan, sehingga dirasakan sangat kecil kembali pada bidang kebudayaan. Padahal secara nyata kebudayaan itulah sebagai penopang paling besar dalam pariwisata untuk mendatangkan devisa. Oleh karena itu, ada kesan “budaya untuk pariwisata”. Dengan demikian, kebudayaan di sini tereksploitasi secara besar-besar dan hanya digunakan sebagai bahan promosi tanpa adanya usaha untuk menjaga dan melestarikannya. Kini banyak objek wisata yang tidak tertata akibat dana pemeliharaan yang terbatas. Salah satu contoh konkret adalah Museum Subak yang ada di Kabupaten Tabanan, Bali. Museum ini meruapakan aset budaya Bali yang tak ternilai harganya. Sayang, kini museum itu sepertinya hanya tinggal kenangan.

3.4Pengaruh Perkembangan Pariwisata terhadap Bahasa
Perkembangan pariwisata akan memberikan efek terhadap kehidupan masyarakat setempat. Efek itu mempengaruhi berbagai aspek kehidupan, baik itu sosial, ekonomi, budaya, relegi, dan juga lingkungan. Luasnya pengaruh perkembangan pariwisata terhadap aspek kehidupan dapat dikaji secara mandiri. Misalnya, pengaruh terhadap bidang sosial, pengaruh terhadap bidang ekonomi, atau pengaruh terhadap bidang kebudayaan.

Sehubungan dengan hal itu dalam kesempatan ini yang dibahas adalah pengaruh perkembangan pariwisata terhadap Bahasa Indonesia yang merupakan bagian dari kebudayaan nasional Indonesia. Pengaruh ini apabila ditinjau dari politik bahasa nasional yang mengatur pengembangan dan pembinaan Bahasa Indonesia dapat dilihat dari dua sisi, yaitu pengaruh yang bersifat positif dan pengaruh yang bersifat negatif.

Pengaruh yang bersifat positif artinya perkembangan pariwisata di Indonesia dapat membantu membina dan mengembangkan bahasa Indonesia, baik sebagai bahasa nasional maupun sebagai bahasa negara. Pengaruh positif ini dapat dilihat dari data berupa munculnya kata-kata dan istilah yang berhubungan dengan kepariwisataan. Artinya, perkembangan pariwisata sudah nyata dapat memperkaya khasanah perbendaharaan kata dan istilah dalam Bahasa Indonesia.

Berikut ini adalah contoh kata dan istilah yang digunakan dalam bahasa Indonesia yang berhubungan dengan kepariwisataan, yaitu: agrowisata, apartemen, awak kabin, bandara, bar, bartender, brosur, Usaha Perjalanan Wisata, kargo, souvenir, reservasi, Diparda, destinasi, objek wisata, daerah tujuan wisata, ekowisata, embarkasi, hotel, reservasi, restoran, jasa boga, kepariwisataan, paspor, devisa, visa, pelancong, pramusaji, pramuwisata, prasmanan, bufe, sadar wisata, sapta pesona, tata graha, tour, wisatawan, paket wisata, wisatawan domestik (wisdom), dan wisatawan mancanegara.

Di samping dapat memperkaya khasanah kosa kata dan istilah, dampak positif perkembangan pariwisata terhadap Bahasa Indonesia juga ditemukan dalam fungsi bahasa Indonesia sebagai alat untuk mengembangkan ilmu pengetahuan. Dalam hal ini, saat ini sudah banyak buku tentang pariwisata yang disajikan dengan Bahasa Indonesia. Ini artinya, Bahasa Indonesia telah digunakan sebagai sarana dalam mengembangkan ilmu pariwisata. Dengan demikian masyarakat akan lebih mudah memahami pariwisata dan sekaligus membantu memasyarakatkan kepariwisataan di kalangan masyarakat.

Positif dan negatif adalah dua sisi yang tak terpisahkan seperti dua sisi mata uang. Demikian juga dalam pengembangan pariwisata di Indonesia di samping berdampak positif terhadap Bahasa Indonesia juga ada pengaruh negatifnya. Pengaruh negatif yang dimaksudkan di sini lebih ditekankan pada masalah belum maksimalnya fungsi bahasa Indonesia sebagai pengungkap produk-produk industri pariwisata.

Di depan telah disebutkan pengembangan pariwisata berdasarkan kebudayaan mestinya semua aspek kebudayaan termasuk produk yang dihasilkan dari industri pariwisata menggunakan Bahasa Indonesia sebagai pengungkapnya, kecuali produk industri pariwisata yang memang berasal dari luar negeri. Akan tetapi, dalam kenyataannya fenomena ini belum terlaksana secara maksimal. Buktinya, sebagai contoh di Bali banyak komponen industri pariwisata justru menggunakan bahasa asing atau pola penyusunannya adalah pola bahasa asing. Padahal itu adalah produk lokal. Misalnya, nama hotel dan restoran, serta nama produk minuman dan makanan khas Bali.
Data berikut menunjukkan nama hotel dan restoran serta nama produk lainnya yang menggunakan bahasa atau pola bahasa asing.
No. Pola Bahasa Asing Pola Bahasa Indonesia
1 Nusa Dua Beach Hotel Hotel Nusa Dua Beach
2 Jayakarta Hotel Hotel Jakarta
3 Borobudur Hotel Hotel Borobudur
4 Lotus Restaurant Restoran Lotus
5 Mamai Restaurant Restoran Mamai
6 Bali Cofee Kopi Bali
7 Hot Tea Teh Panas
8 Bali Arak Arak Bali

3.5Pengaruh Kebudayaan terhadap Bahasa
Kebudayaan sebagai hasil cipta, karya, dan karsa manusia tentu terus mengalami perkembangan seiring dengan perkembangan zaman dan peradaban manusia. Perkembangan ini sudah pasti diikuti oleh adanya perubahan akibat pergaulan manusia satu dengan yang lainnya dalam suatu tatanan kemasyarakatan. Kontak bahasa akan mengakibatkan adanya kontak budaya demikian juga sebaliknya kontak budaya menyebabkan terjadinya kontak bahasa.

Sehubungan dengan itu, dapat dikemukan sebagai contoh munculnya istilah komputer, kamera, televisi akan diikuti oleh hadirnya produk fisik. Kemudian dari produk fisik ini akan hadir kosa kata dan istilah yang berhubungan dengannya sebagai sarana pengungkapnya. Misalnya, dari istilah komputer muncul istilah terkait seperti disket, printer, monitor, mouse dan yang lain; dari istilah kamera hadir istilah pendukung seperti foto, digital, film; dan dari istilah televisi kemudian lahir istilah lain sebagai pendukung seperti antena, parabola, dan frekuensi (Djajasudarma, 2001).

Munculnya kata dan istilah baru dalam Bahasa Indonesia juga diakibatkan adanya perkembangan kebudayaan nasional yang didukung oleh kebudayaan daerah dengan bahasa daerahnya masing-masing. Artinya, perbendaharaan kosa kata Bahasa Indonesia juga muncul dari bahasa-bahasa daerah di Indonesia. Misalnya, dalam bidang seni muncul kata barong, reog, gandrung, dan wayang orang.

Semua yang dipaparkan di atas adalah efek positif perkembangan kebudayaan nasional terhadap Bahasa Indonesia. Efek negatifnya justru terlihat pada keterbatasan Bahasa Indonesia untuk mewahanai kebudayaan-kebudayaan yang diserap dari hasil pergaulan masyarakat Indonesia dengan masyarakat internasional. Artinya, ada istilah kebudayaan yang diserap dari luar belum ditemukan padanan yang pas dalam Bahasa Indonesia. Ini akan menimbulkan penggunaan istilah asingnya dalam Bahasa Indonesia. Misalnya istilah flash disk, hard disk yang berkaitan dengan komputer.

IV conclusions AND RECOMMENDATIONS
4.1 Conclusions
Based on the above description, it can be concluded more of the following: (1) Tourism, culture and language has a very close relationship. This was caused by tourism in Indonesia was developed based on the national culture of Indonesia. National culture is supported by local cultures can be enjoyed by tourists need a means of expressing the language. That is, people want to know the national culture to Indonesia through the Indonesian language. Similarly, the Indonesian study also indirectly learn the Indonesian national culture. So, with such language (Indonesia) is a means of expressing national culture of Indonesia is used as the basis for the development of tourism in Indonesia. (2) such a close relationship between tourism, culture, and language not only have a positive impact, but also create problems as the negative impact . (3) The positive impact of tourism on cultural development of cultural acculturation will occur, because of the local interaction with tourists, local cultures will continue to grow because of the tourists (foreigners) who comes to see and know better the original culture these, and the excavation efforts of cultural values indigenous to developed and preserved. In addition to positive impacts, tourism development can lead to problems of culture, namely the culture of excessive exploitation that occurred commercialization. (4) The development of tourism in Indonesia is also a positive impact on Indonesian development especially in terms of vocabulary treasure. For example: agro tourism, apartments, cabin crew, airports, bars, bartender, brochures, Business Travel, cargo, souvenirs, reservations, Diparda, destinations, tourist, tourist destination, ecotourism, embarkation, hotels, restaurants, catering, tourism , passport, foreign exchange, visa, traveler, waiter, guide, buffet, bufe, conscious tourism, Sapta charm, maid service, tour, tourists, tour packages, domestic tourists (wisdom), and foreign tourists (tourists). While such problems are not yet maximum functionality Indonesian language as a means of expressing the components and products of tourism industry.

4.2Saran
National tourism development goal is to achieve sustainable tourism. Therefore, the development of tourism in Indonesia which is based on culture have to be really careful. This means that Indonesian culture must not become victims of tourism development, tourism contrary to a positive contribution to the culture in the broad sense, including the Indonesian language that serves as a means of expressing the Indonesian culture. In this case for Indonesian tourism really reflect on the culture of Indonesia to consider the possibility of using Indonesian and foreign language (English) together. This is where a firm policy is needed to regulate it and also needs a moral responsibility by tourism actors to maintain and preserve the national culture.

REFERENCES
Ardika, I Wayan (Editor). 2003. Sustainable Cultural Tourism: Reflections and
Expectations in the Global Development Center. Denpasar: Master Study Program
(S2) Tourism Studies, Graduate School of Udayana University.

Damardjati, RS 2001. Term-Term World Tourism. Jakarta: Pradnya Paramita.

Djajasudarma, T. Fatimah. 2001. "Functions of Language and Culture in the glue
United Nations "in Austronesian Languages and Culture: A collection
Seminar. Denpasar: Program Master and Doctoral Studies Linguistics
In collaboration with the Program in Science Studies and Cultural Studies, Graduate
Udayana University.

Geriya, Wayan. 1996. Tourism and Cultural Dynamics of Local, National,
Global: Bunga Rampai Anthropology of Tourism. Denpasar: Upada literature.

Halim, Amran.1980. "Function and Status of Indonesian" in Amran Halim
(Ed.). Political Language Nsional 2. Jakarta: PN Balai Pustaka.

Keraf, Gorys. 1980. Composition: An Introduction to Language Kemahrian. Ende: Nusa
Beautiful.

Koentjaraninggrat (Ed.). 1985. Human and Culture of Indonesia. Jakarta:
Djambatan.

Nababan, PWJ 1984. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction. Jakarta: PT Gramedia.

Pitana, I Putu Gde and G. Gayatri. 2005. Sociology of Tourism: Review of Sociology
Of Structure, Systems, and Impact-Impact of Tourism. Yogyakarta:
Andi.

Poerwadarminta, WJS 1983. General Dictionaries Indonesian. Jakarta: PN Balai
Libraries.

Sihite, Richarda. 2000. Tourism Industry (Tourism). Surabaya: SIC.

Sitindoan, G. 1984. Introduction to Linguistics and Grammar Indonesian.
Bandung: Pustaka Prima.

Spillane, James J. 1989. Tourism Economic History and prospects. Prints II. New York: Doubleday.

Subhadra, I Nengah. 2006. "Mangrove Forest Ecotourism in Sustainable Tourism Development: Case Studies in the Mangrove Information Center, Pemogan Village, South Denpasar District, Denpasar City". (thesis) S2 Tourism Studies: University of Udayana.

Yoeti, Oka A. 1983. Commercialization of Art Culture in Tourism. Bandung:
Space.

Yoeti, Oka A. 1996. Introduction to Tourism. Bandung: Angkasa.

Jumat, 26 Maret 2010 di 10.17

0 Comments to "Dampak Positif Pariwisata Terhadap Kebudayaan"

Poskan Komentar